In psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store, retain, and subsequently retrieve information. Traditional studies of memory began in the realms of philosophy, including techniques of artificially enhancing the memory.

The late nineteenth and early twentieth century put memory within the paradigms of cognitive psychology. In recent decades, it has become one of the principal pillars of a branch of science called cognitive neuroscience, an interdisciplinary link between cognitive psychology and neuroscience.

Memorization is a method of learning that allows an individual to recall information verbatim. Rote learning is the method most often used. Methods of memorizing things have been the subject of much discussion over the years with some writers, such as Cosmos Rossellius using visual alphabets. The spacing effect shows that an individual is more likely to remember a list of items when rehearsal is spaced over an extended period of time. In contrast to this is cramming which is intensive memorization in a short period of time. Also relevant is the Zeigarnik effect which states that people remember uncompleted or interrupted tasks better than completed ones.

In March 2007 German researchers found they could use odors to re-activate new memories in the brains of people while they slept and the volunteers remembered better later.

Tony Noice, an actor, director, teacher and cognitive researcher, and his psychologist wife Helga, have studied how actors remember lines and found that their techniques can be useful to non-actors as well.

At the Center for Cognitive Science at The Ohio State University, researchers have found that memory accuracy of adults is hurt by the fact that they know more than children and tend to apply this knowledge when learning new information. The findings appeared in the August 2004 edition of the journal Psychological Science.

The best way to improve memory seems to be to increase the supply of oxygen to the brain, which may be accomplished with aerobic exercises; walking for three hours each week suffices, as does swimming or bicycle riding.

Such aerobic exercises have helped elderly people switch between mental tasks, concentrate better, and improve short-term memory. Exercise increases the number of connections between neurons, which is responsible for improved memory.

The International Longevity Center released in 2001 a report which includes in pages 14-16 recommendations for keeping the mind in good functionality until advanced age. Some of the recommendations are to stay intellectually active through learning, training or reading, to keep physically active so to promote blood irrigation to the brain, to socialize, to reduce stress, to keep sleep time regular, to avoid depression or emotional instability and to observe good nutrition.

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This definition is part of a series that covers the topic of Memory Training and Memory Improvement. The Official Guide to Memory Training and Memory Improvement is Ruslan Mescerjakovs.

Ruslan M is the founder and creator of the School of Phenomenal Memory. School of Phenomenal Memory is a breakthrough in the field of memory improvement. Their Phenomenal Memory Course 2.0 does not only provide amazing results but guarantees ability to memorize anything ranging from as simple as names and phone numbers to volumes of complex technical data and even entire books. At this moment any person can join the school and improve their memory to the limits that almost too good to be true.

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