Bipolar affective disorder or manic-depressive psychosis is a mental disorder categorized by severe mood swings. While the manic stage, the level of energy and activity increases, and throughout the depressive phase, a decline in all processes occurs. In the course of such exacerbations of the illness, it is often difficult for a patient to perform even simple, everyday work. The bipolar affective disorder is a mental disorder characterized by a change of manic and depressive states, mixed states, alternation of euphoria and depression. Mood swings in patients with bipolar disorder are more serious than those that we encounter every day. In the intervals between them, most people can lead a normal life, but when the symptoms worsen, without professional help it becomes almost impossible.

This is a serious disease, which is quite common. For example, in the US, many Americans are diagnosed with this disease quite often. Therefore, psychiatrists often call the disease "bipolar affective disorder" or “manic-depressive syndrome (psychosis)."

Most experts agree that there is no one global reason why a patient develops bipolar disorder. Rather, it is the result of several factors that influence the occurrence of this mental illness. Psychiatrists identify several reasons why bipolar disorder develops are mentioned below:

 genetic factors
 biological factors
 a chemical imbalance in the brain
 hormonal imbalance
 External factors

The chemical imbalance in the brain, especially with regard to neurotransmitters, plays a key role in the occurrence of various mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitters are biologically active substances in the brain. Among them, in particular, the most famous neurotransmitters are Serotonin, Dopamine and Norepinephrine. However, the hormonal imbalances can trigger the development of bipolar disorder also with high probability. External factors or environmental factors sometimes lead to the formation of bipolar disorder. Among environmental factors, psychiatrists emphases on excessive use of alcohol, nervous tension and traumatic situations.

Symptoms during the manic stage of bipolar disorder are as follows:

• a person feels himself the master of the world, feels euphoric and too excited

• the patient is self-confident, he has an excessive sense of self-worth and an increased self-esteem prevails

• a person is distinguished by quick speech and an abundance of phrases

• thoughts come and go with a high speed (the so-called jumps of thought), eccentric utterances are uttered; sometimes some strange thoughts even begin to be embodied in reality

• during the manic stage, the person is sociable, sometimes aggressive

• the patient is able to commit risky behaviour, there is a promiscuous sex life, alcoholism , he can use drugs and engage in dangerous activities

• A person can carelessly handle money and spend it excessively

Symptoms during the depressive stage of a bipolar affective disorder are as follows:

• the patient feels dejection, despair, hopelessness, sadness, and his thoughts are gloomy

• in severe cases of the patient visit suicidal thoughts and he can even take certain actions to implement the intended

• doctors note insomnia and sleep disorders

• the patient often experiences anxiety over trifles

• the person often overwhelms the feeling of guilt about all events

• The depressive phase of bipolar disorder affects the intake of food - a person eats or is too much or too little

• patients note in themselves a loss of weight or, conversely, weight gain
• the patient complains of fatigue, weakness, apathy

• in a person there are violations of attention

• the patient is easily susceptible to irritants:
noise, light, smells, reacts to tight clothes

• some patients are unable to go to work or study

• The person notices that he has lost the ability to enjoy the activity that used to bring joy

Treatment and prevention
• Treatment of bipolar disorder must necessarily occur under the supervision of a psychiatrist. This is not a runny nose, and no diarrhoea, which is customary to treat yourself. Therapy of individual phases, episodes and even symptoms of bipolar disorder of the psyche is significantly different. Therefore, one should not self-medicate in any case. The drugs that are most often used in the treatment of this disease are antidepressants and neuroleptics.

• However, the antidepressants are indicated during a depressive episode, as well as for its prevention. The spectrum of these drugs is very large, they differ in the mechanisms of action, on the effect, on side effects. The most popular antidepressants to date are fluoxetine, sertraline, amitriptyline, fluvoxamine.

• Through using the drugs regularly as prescribed helps to stabilize the mood, reduce the intensity of its fluctuations. Several drugs are used not only for treatment but also for the prevention of bipolar affective disorder, preventing the development of episodes of the disease. Neuroleptics are most often used to treat psychotic symptoms. Drugs of this group help to eliminate delusions, hallucinations, excessive anxiety.

Bipolar personality disorder, although it is an endogenous pathology, its course can be considered favorable. In many patients, there is a remission between the attacks of the disease - a condition when the manifestations of the disease are minimal or practically absent.

Author's Bio: 

Gloria woods is a fitness mentor. She owns social advantage educational NGOs for the improvement of health issues for society. In this article, she explains the good being problem for the benefit of the new generation. Besides, she likewise clarifies instructional exercise lectures at essay help UK for students.